Door and window design of the hottest car

2022-09-21
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Automobile door and window design

vapor length glass fiber reinforced polypropylene replaces metal and glass fiber nylon materials, which has obvious advantages of weight and cost reduction. Door and window is an important part of the body. Their modern design has developed greatly on the basis of traditional design; Especially in terms of appearance, with the change of vehicle appearance design concept and style, the appearance of doors and windows is also changeable, emerging in endlessly

it can be seen that the car doors and windows, in addition to meeting the requirements described in the following relevant chapters in terms of function, are no longer simple geometric figures in terms of appearance, but must comply with the requirements of the car shape design, which is composed of miscellaneous geometric figures and curved surfaces. As the door inner panel belongs to interior trim, the shape designer and interior trim designer must have closer contact and cooperation than ever before

1. Traditional design

1.1 door

the basic function of the door is to provide the driver and passengers with access to the vehicle and ensure safety. According to the opening mode, it is divided into five types: forward opening rotary type, reverse opening rotary type, mobile type, upward lifting type and push-pull folding type. Even when the car is running, the clockwise rotation type can still be closed with the help of the pressure of the air flow, which is relatively safe and convenient for the driver to observe backwards when reversing, so it is widely used; The reverse rotation type may be washed away by the oncoming airflow if it is not tightly closed when the car is driving, so it is rarely used. It is generally only used to improve the convenience of getting on and off the bus and meet the needs of welcome etiquette; The advantage of the mobile type is that the car body can still be fully opened when the distance between the wall and the obstacle is small; The lift type is widely used as the rear door of cars and light buses, and also used in Low-Rise cars. The push-pull folding type is widely used in large and medium-sized buses. Some large buses are also equipped with safety doors to accelerate the evacuation of passengers from the scene of the accident and facilitate the entry of rescue personnel

the doors of car and truck cabs and the access doors of bus drivers are usually composed of outer plates, inner plates, window frames and other components. The outer plates are required to be light in weight, while the inner plates are required to be rigid. The inner plate is the installation base of various accessories and the parts installed on it. Some car doors also have heating and ventilation ducts and stereo radio speakers and other components

the door hinge is installed on the body shell. When the car is running, the body shell will be twisted and deformed repeatedly. In order to avoid the noise caused by the friction between the door and the door frame in this case, a large gap is left between the door and the door frame, and the gap is sealed by the rubber sealing strip. A water outlet shall be opened at the lowest position of the door in case the water in the door flows out automatically to prevent corrosion of the door panel and parts. The upper frame of the door is mostly made of rolled equal cross-section sections

1.2 window

the basic function of the window is to provide light, vision and ventilation to the driver and passengers. To ensure safety, all windows must be installed with safety glass; The windshield is equipped with laminated glass. In case of a crash, the window will not fall and hurt people. In addition to the shape requirements of the front window, which must comply with the tilt and curved surface of the vehicle shape coordination, it also needs to ensure the field of vision and ventilation, and needs to pass the model verification. When driving towards the light source, the reflection contrast of the front window into the instrument panel and the upper cover plate cannot interfere with the driver's line of sight. In addition to ensuring the driver's field of vision, the window should enable the driver to stretch his head out of the window when necessary. There are two ways to fix the glass: direct bonding and rubber sealing strip fixing. Direct bonding type when the car body is deformed, the stress is generated due to the deformation of the glass, which is easy to cause the glass to crack. Therefore, when designing the window frame, attention should be paid to improving its rigidity. The fixed rubber sealing strip should ensure the reliable and durable sealing to prevent water leakage. In order to facilitate natural ventilation, the window glass should be able to move up and down or left and right. A sealing groove made of materials such as wool or flocking rubber is installed between the glass and the guide rail, and the windows of some cars also use cylindrical glass that is conducive to the interior layout; If the window glass adopts brown or thermal insulation layer, it can keep indoor heat preservation and add a sense of comfort of leisure and tranquility. Advanced passenger cars with perfect air conditioning, heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment often design the window glass as immovable to improve the sealing of the body. Some cars are also equipped with triangle windows, which can rotate around a vertical or slightly inclined axis to adjust the opening; When the window is opened, an air vortex is formed near it, forcing the air in the car to circulate around the window

2. Modern design

the modern design of doors and windows has developed from the traditional design. In addition to the shape changes described at the beginning of this paper, a series of new functions with electronic technology as the core have been developed mainly in terms of functions

2.1 design of remote central locking function

in order to prevent theft and ensure the safety of the owner, the door cannot be easily opened by others. First, the remote central locking function of the door is developed. The operation of the system is as follows: there are two keys on the launch: "unlock and lock"; There are two positions for unlocking: "unlock all" and "select to unlock"; If it is set to "unlock all", press the "unlock" key, and the luggage compartment lid and fuel tank valves of the front and rear doors will be unlocked; If it is set to "select unlock", only the driver's access door and fuel tank valve will be unlocked by pressing the unlock key. When the car is mainly locked, just press the "lock" button on the remote control key, and all locking points are locked. At this time, the turn signal flashes 3 times to show that the locking is successful

2.2 design of convenient control function of door and window opening and closing

in order to make customers comfortable, when they want to open or close doors and windows, but are unwilling to get up and operate by themselves, they can easily replace their own operation through the remote control key. As long as the battery voltage is normal, the switch is in the "0" position or is turned off, and the "unlock" key on the remote control key is turned on for more than one second, the relevant door and window opening action can be completed

2.3 design of automatic defrosting function of the rear window

in winter, in order to maintain the field of vision and light of the rear window, the rear window has automatic defrosting function. The system is controlled by the defrost switch on the panel, which will cause the current to be too large or too small

2.4 design of the concealed control function of the rear window

in order to adjust the light in the car or prevent direct sunlight, the rear window has the shadow control function. The rear window shading motor is controlled by the rear window signal acquisition and execution module through the rear window shading appliance. The rear window shadow relay, which of the two coils with reversible polarity is activated, determines the rotation direction of the motor. The rear window signal acquisition and execution control module controls the motor according to the following signals:

the ignition start on signal sent by the electronic ignition/starter control module and transmitted through can; The rear window shade switch is pressed. When the upper half of the rear window shadow switch is pressed, the shadow part of the rear window expands; When the lower half of the rear window shade switch is pressed, the rear window and the shade part shrink

2.5 the design of the automatic cleaning function of the front and rear windows

is also to maintain the field of vision and light in the car. The design should make the front and rear windows have the automatic cleaning function

2.6 design of keyless enabling function

keyless enabling control function is a step further than the function of remote control system; As long as the keyless launch card is carried with you, you can open the door and start the car. The latter must be operated remotely before it is possible to open the door. It can be seen that it not only improves the control level, but also is more convenient to use, and the anti-theft is more strict. Keyless or locked operations are as follows:

unlock:

pull a door handle used by the driver or passengers

or hold a door handle used by the driver or passengers with your hands

or touch the trunk open switch

lock:

prerequisites:

at least one long transmitter outside the upper head, and amplify near the inductive left front door antenna or the rear bumper antenna

all doors are closed

the ignition starting circuit is closed

press the button on a door handle used by the driver or passenger

or touch the "keyless enable button" on the luggage compartment lid

3. Development trend

it can be seen from the materials used by the C919 large passenger aircraft that the modern design of car doors and windows has got rid of the frame of traditional design. Not only the shape design is ever-changing, emerging in endlessly, and is subject to the design of the appearance style of the whole vehicle, but also in terms of function, in addition to meeting the requirements of traditional design: access, vision, lighting and ventilation, it is also developing in the direction of electronization and networking like the whole vehicle

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